Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine
Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy
Luh Gde Sri Astiti, Tanda Panjaitan
Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology - West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
The purpose of this study is to characterise progesterone concentration in Bali cows before, during and after pregnancy. This study enables pregnant status to be detected shortly following conception in Bali cow. Five Bali cows and one Bali bull were used in this study, between June 2010 and September 2011. The concentration of progesterone in the blood serum was analysed using Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Immunoassay principle in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. Cow bodyweight increased during pregnancy aligned with foetus development in uterus. The progesterone concentration in non-pregnant cow was 1.32 ± 0.93 ng/ml over 11 months of observation. For the pregnant cows the progesterone concentration was 0.76 ± 0.64 ng/ml before pregnant and increased pronouncedly ranging between 7.43 ± 5.27 and 16.7 ± 2.29 ng/ml from the first up to the 7th month of pregnancy, then slightly declined toward parturition, between 11.55 ± 0.71 and 8.46 ± 5.33 ng/ml, and plunged down markedly to level of 0.89 ± 0.24 ng/ml following parturition. Progesterone concentration were markedly different in pregnant versus non-pregnant Bali cows. This allows pregnant status of Bali cow to be detected shortly following conception.
Keywords: progesterone profile, pregnancy, Bali cow.
Citation: Astiti, L. G. S., & Panjaitan, T. (2013). Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy. Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine, Online(open-access), e70081943. doi:10.7392/Veterinary.70081943
Received: February 19, 2013
Published: March 15, 2013
Copyright: © 2013 Astiti, L. G. S., & Panjaitan, T. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
livestock productivity requires
an increasing in the reproductive performance and the number of breeding cow to
a certain level, in order to meet the demand of animal
protein (Tagama, 1995). Increasing reproductive performance is a fundamental
aspect in cattle reproduction (Tagama,
1995) to achieve one calf per cow per
year. An understanding of the reproduction and pregnancy status of the cow
is rather vital in breeding management and this is closely related to the reproductive cycles (Romano, 2011).
cattle is known for their adaptability to harsh environmental condition, with low quality
feed, but still have a high fertility rate that give high production
performance (Darmaja, 1980; Wiryosuhanto, 1996; Enwistle, 2001). The estrus cycle
period in cows generally ranges from 18 to 24 days (Parish, 2010) and Bali cattle
recorded 20 days for heifer and 21 days for cow (Pane, 1991; Wirdahayati, 1994). Estrus cycle consists
of four phases, namely proestrus, estrus,
metestrus and diestrus (Anonymous, 2011a
is a hormone produced by the corpus luteum (Rekawiecki
et al., 2008). Several studies have reported that progesterone
concentration is correlated to corpus luteum size (Putro et al., 2008). However, it has been reported that no
significant differences exist in progesterone concentration between breed
(Jimenez et al., 1985; Diaz et al., 1986). This hormone is essential
for preparation of the reproductive tract
as the place to implant the embryo and the maintenance of the pregnancy
(Hafez and Hafez, 2000; Romano, 2011; Anonymous, 2011b
When progesterone level in cow’s blood serum
is less than 1 ng/ml, this indicates
that the animal is in the luteal phase of
the estrus cycle. In contrary, if its
level is higher than 1 ng/ml, it shows that the animal is in the follicular
et al., 2000).
The objective of this study was to characterise
progesterone concentration in Bali cows before,
during and after pregnancy and to enable
early pregnancy detection subsequent to conception in Bali cow.
study was carried out in the experimental station of the Assessment Institute of
Agricultural Technology at Narmada (Latitude, 8°
35' 50, 21 S,
13' 08, 46 E, and elevation 148 m above sea level),
West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, between June 2010 and September 2011.
Five cows and one
bull were used in this study.
The females were given specific number for the ease of identification.
Four females were mated with male and the other one was untreated (unmated) and referred as control. The
selected bull fed with similar basal diets of mix forages such as elephant
grass, setaria, mullato and
rice straw, supplemented with rice bran 0.5% body weight. All animal received the
same amount of feed. Salt and water
were provided ad libitum throughout the day. All cattle were treated with albendazole and ivermectin,
against internal and external parasites, prior to the commencement of the
experiment. Following estrus, cow females were naturally mated
with the bull. Blood samples were taken
periodically every month prior and during pregnancy and one month subsequent
to parturition. Body weight was monitored monthly.
(6ml) was obtained from the jugulars vein, using a 10ml syringe and transferred
into a 10ml glass tube. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 3500 rpm for 10
minutes 3 times. The blood serum was then put into a numbered micro tube. Progesterone
concentration in the serum was determined using Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Immunoassay
(ELFA) principal in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
(ELISA) method which has sensitivity close 100 times better than original ELISA
(Yolken and Stopa, 1979).
All data were
tabulated and analysed descriptively
using excel 2007 (Windows 7).
The present study demonstrated characteristic
of progesterone pattern in Bali cow (Figure 1).
The progesterone concentration in the control animal was 0.98 ng/ml and
was in close agreement with the rest of the cow prior to conception, which averaged
0.76 ± 0.64 ng/ml, varied from 0.29 to 3.04 ng/ml.
This is also in agreement with Arimbawa et al. (2012)
who reported progesterone concentration of 0.52 ng/ml by non-pregnant Bali cows.
Low progesterone concentration (0.2 ng/ml) in non-pregnant Zebu cows has also
been reported by Mukasa and Azage
(1989). The low progesterone concentration found in this observation agrees
closely to Zaora et al. (1982) who suggested that cow
with progesterone level less than 2.4 ng/ml indicates that the cow is not pregnant. The
variation on progesterone concentration within non pregnant dams indicated the different
phase of estrus cycle between the animal. Ricoy et
al. (2000) reported that when the level of progesterone in the blood is less
than 1 ng/ml indicates that animal is in luteal phase of estrus
cycle. However, according to Chung et al. (2012), slightly increase in progesterone
concentration occurred up to day 18 of the cycle and then decreased to the
lowest level approaching diestrus (Budiyanto, 2012). Belli and Jelantik
(2011) confirmed this pattern in Bali cattle, where progesterone concentration
began to rise on day 4 of the cycle (1.9 ng/ml) and increased to concentrations as high as 5.4 ng/ml during
the luteal phase (day 12), before returning to basal levels i.e. 0.1 ng/ml. This
is in agreement with Arimbawa et al. (2012) who reported the
increasing of progesterone level in Bali cattle occurs on the 4th
days after ovulation and could reached up to of 9.52 ng/ml on
days. Similar pattern was found in Zebu cows (Mukasa and Azage,1989) and, similarly, Kayacik et al. (2005) reported that the
progesterone level could reach 9.81 ng/ml on day 10 of the estrus
cycle an decreased on diestrus phase ranged from 1.1
to 1.7 ng/ml. Decreasing progesterone concentration to the lowest level indicates
that luteolysis or degradation of structural and
functional corpus luteum occurs in the absence of
pregnancy (Romano et al., 2011). It can be concluded that, when progesterone
concentration in the serum of Bali cattle is considerably low (3.0 ng/ml), indicates
that the cow is not pregnant.
Figure 1: Progesterone levels in Bali cattle before, during and after pregnancy.
The study showed that the average
levels of progesterone in Bali cows during the period of 1st
month of pregnancy ranged from 7.43 ± 5.27 to
16.7 ± 2.29 ng/ml. This high level of progesterone
was produced by the corpus luteum to maintain the
pregnancy (Mann and Lammning, 1999; Inskeep, 2004; Romano, 2011). If the pregnancy occurred,
the corpus luteum sustains its progesterone level high
until reaches of 13.9 ng/ml (Anonymous, 2012). Yanhong
(2004) reported that luteal
cells increased significantly with development of corpus luteum,
during the 5-8 week of pregnancy.
However, the progesterone level obtained in this current study was
higher than those reported by Belli et al. (2011), who found 5.46 ng/ml in 3
weeks of gestation and reaching a peak level of 10 ng/ml in 10 weeks of
gestation. Differences of these results might be caused by difference of
methods; where Belli and Jelantik (2011) used Radio Immuno Assay methods as Belli and Jelantik
(2011), they also found that increasing feed quality has no significant effect
on progesterone level in Bali cattle.
At the 8th
month of pregnancy, the number of progesterone hormone was averaged 11.55 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Whilst in the 9th
pregnancy, its level had slowed down to an average of 8.46 ± 5.33 ng/ml. This declining
level of progesterone started from 7th
month of pregnancy up to a day before giving birth. The level of progesterone at the end of
pregnancy period, 10 weeks pre calving in Bali cattle,
reached 2.83 ng/ml (Belli and Jelantik, 2011). Jain et al. (1980) confirmed
the decrease in progesterone levels in a day
before giving birth. This occurrence was
due to the hormonal changes,
in which the endocrine system reduces
the production of progesterone and generates more estrogens hormone that serves to increase the tonus of uterus,
relax the cervix and escalate the
sensitivity of uterine muscles
toward oxytocins hormone (Toelihere, 1985).
giving birth, the average level of
progesterone was close to the level
before pregnancy, with the
average of 0.89 ± 0.24 ng/ml. After giving birth
the progesterone level is back to its normal conditions. This is in agreement
with Mukasa and Azage
(1989) who found that progesterone level in Zebu cow was
1.0 ng/ml one week after calving. From
this phenomenon, it showed that following parturition the level of the progesterone would be back to its normal conditions and ready for the next estrus cycle. The low
progesterone occurred due to negative feedback action on the hypothalamo‐hypophysis axis, allowing for
recovery of gonadotropin function to block progesterone being produced (Belli and
Jelantik, 2011). Progesterone concentration is high
in pregnant animal and in Bali cow and can reach up to 17 ng/ml when the cow is
in the 7 month of pregnancy.
bodyweight changed from early pregnancy (3rd
month) to late
month), and following parturition it showed similar
pattern in all animals (Figure 2). The cow
bodyweight increased during pregnancy in line with foetus development in the
decreased subsequently following parturition. However, bodyweight tended to
remain unchanged from 7 to 9 months of pregnancy due to change in diet
composition; this was below the expectation, as this slightly affects body
condition for most of the pregnant cows in this study.
Figure 2: Bodyweight of Bali cow from early pregnancy, during pregnancy and following parturition.
Bodyweight increase as the pregnant
status proceeds indicates that the cow received sufficient nutrition to support
foetus development. Although bodyweight remains unchanged and body condition
seemed to decrease in the last trimester of the pregnancy, this did not affect
progesterone concentration during the late pregnancy. The decrease in
progesterone concentration from 7 to 9 months of pregnancy in the current study
is in agreement with the previous study on Bos javanicus, Bos indicus and Bos Taurus
(Adeyemo and Heath, 1980; Jimenez et al., 1985; Wirdahayati, 1994). This phenomenon is a negation to any
effect of nutrition status, during last trimester of pregnancy, on the decrease
of progesterone concentration over 7 months of pregnancy to parturition.
Progesterone concentration in blood
serum of Bali cows increased pronouncedly following conception and remains high
during pregnancy, but slightly decreased two months prior to parturition then
plunged to the lowest point following parturition to the non-pregnant
level. The marked
differences in progesterone concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant
allow an early detection of pregnant status in Bali cow, and the level of
progesterone during pregnancy may be used to estimate month of pregnancy.
grateful to acknowledge Prof. Dr.
Ismeth Inounu and Prof. Dr. Argono R. Setioko for proof-reading the manuscript and the contribution of the technical
assistances with their help during the work.
1. Adeyemo, O. and E. Heath. (1980). Plasma progesterone and milk progesterone assay in pregnancy diagnosis in White Fulani (Zebu) cattle. Anim. Reproduction Sci. 19:205-208.
2.The four phases of oestrus in cow. (2011). Merck Animal Health. FIND ONLINE
3. Progesterone and pregnancy: what you need to know. (2011). E-book.
4. Progesterone: pregnancy. (2012). Department of Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin. FIND ONLINE
5. Arimbawa, I.W.P., I.G.N.B. Trilaksana and C.G.O. Pemayun. (2012). Gambaran hormon progesteron sapi bali selama satu siklus estrus. Indonesia Medicus Veterinus 1(3):330336.
6. Belli, H. L. L., & Jelantik, I. G. N. (2011). Progesterone Profiles During the Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy of Grazing Bali Cows Supplemented with Concentrate. Animal Production, 11(2). FIND ONLINE
7. Budiyanto, A. (2012). Peningkatan tingkat kebuntingan dan kelahiran sapi di Indonesia dan masalah-masalah yang terkait. Seminar Updating Penyakit Gangguan Reproduksi dan Penanganannya pada Ruminansia Besar. Perhimpunan Dokter Hewan Indonesia cabang Daerah IstimewaYogyakarta, Indonesia. 8 Maret 2012.
8. Chung, H.J., K.W. Kim, D. W. Han, H.C. Lee, B.C. Yang, H.K.Chung, M.R. Shim, M.S. Choi, E.B. Jo, Y.M. Jo, M.Y. Oh, S. J. Jo, S.K. Hong, J.K. Park and W.K. Chang. 2012. Protein profile in corpus luteum during pregnancy in korean native cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25(11):1540.
9. Darmadja, G.N.D. (1980). Half a Century Traditional Cattle Husbandry Within Agricultural Ecosystem of Bali. Ph.D. Thesis, Pajajaran University. Bandung. Indonesia.
10. Díaz, T., Manzo, M., Trocóniz, J., Benacchio, N., & Verde, O. (1986). Plasma progesterone levels during the estrous cycle of Holstein and Brahman cows, Carora type and cross-bred heifers. Theriogenology, 26(4), 419-432. FIND ONLINE
11. Entwistle, K. (2001). Bali cattle performance – current population dynamics and performance and some strategies for improvement – preliminary report. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Bogor. Indonesia.
12. Hafez, E.S.E. and B. Hafez. (2000). Reproduction in Farm Animal. Seventh Edition. Lippincott Williams. USA.
13.Inskeep, E. K. (2004). Preovulatory, postovulatory, and postmaternal recognition effects of concentrations of progesterone on embryonic survival in the cow. Journal of animal science, 82(13 suppl), E24-E39. FIND ONLINE
14. Jain, G. C., Batra, S. K., Pahwa, G. S., & Pandey, R. S. (1980). Plasma progesterone levels during late pregnancy in goats. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin Reihe A, 27(6), 513-516. FIND ONLINE
15. Jimenez, F., C.S. Galina, B. Ramirez, and R. Navarro-Fierro. (1985). Comparative study of the concentrations of peripheral progesterone before and after PG2alpha injection between Bos Taurus (Brown Swiss) and Bos indicus (Indo Brazil) in the tropics. Anim. Repro. Sci. 9:333-339.
16. Kayacik, V., Salmanoglu, R., Polat, B., & Ozluer, A. (2006). Evaluation of the corpus luteum size throughout the cycle by ultrasonography and progesterone assay in cows. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29(6), 1311. FIND ONLINE
17. Mann, G. E., & Lamming, G. E. (2007). The influence of progesterone during early pregnancy in cattle. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 34(3‐4), 269-274. FIND ONLINE
18. Mukasa-Mugerwa, E., & Tegegne, A. (1989). Peripheral plasma progesterone concentration in Zebu (Bos indicus) cows during pregnancy. Reprod. Nutr. Dev,29, 303. FIND ONLINE
19. Parish, J.A. (2010). The Estrous Cycle of Cattle. Mississippi State University Extension Service.
20. Putro, P. P., Wasito, R., Wuryastuty, H., & Indarjulianto, S. (2011). Follicular Development Dynamics and Plasma Progesterone Profile during the Estrous Cycle of Dairy Cows. Animal Production, 10(2). FIND ONLINE
21. Rekawiecki, R., Kowalik, M. K., Slonina, D., & Kotwica, J. (2008). Regulation of progesterone synthesis and action in bovine corpus luteum. J Physiol Pharmacol, 59(suppl 9), 75-89. FIND ONLINE
22. Ricoy, E.F., C. Acua, R.M. Rincon, D.F. Cortes, R. B. Velenzuela and C.F. Arechiga. (2000). True estrus determination through evaluation of serum progesterone level at the time of insemination of dairy cows from semi-intensive dairies in north-central Mexico. Journal Animal Science. 79(Supll. I):227(Abstr.).
23. Romano, J.E. (2011). Pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. Veterinary population medicine. College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota.
24. Tagama, T. R. (1995). Pengaruh hormon estrogen, progesteron dan prostaglandin F2 Alfa terhadap aktivitas birahi sapi PO dara. Jurnal Ilmiah Penelitian Ternak Grati. 4(1):7-11.
25. Toelihere. M.R. (1985). Ilmu Kebidanan pada ternak Sapi dan Kerbau. Universitas Indonesia Press. Jakarta.
26. Wirdahayati, R.B. (1994). Reproductive Characteristics and Productivity of Bali and Ongole Cattle in Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
27. Wiryosuhanto, S. (1996). Bali Cattle - their economic importance in Indonesia. ACIAR proceeding No. 75 pp. 34.
28. Yanhong, Y., C. Yuin and Y. Sijiu. (2004). Histological characteristics of corpus luteum in Yak during early pregnancy. In: Proceeding of The 2004 International Congress on Yak. Chengdu, Sichuan, China. FIND ONLINE
29. Yolken, R. H., & Stopa, P. J. (1979). Enzyme-linked fluorescence assay: Ultrasensitive solid-phase assay for detection of human rotavirus. Journal of clinical microbiology, 10(3), 317-321. FIND ONLINE
Cite this paper
Astiti, L. G. S., & Panjaitan, T. (2013). Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy. Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine, Online(open-access), e70081943. doi:10.7392/Veterinary.70081943
Astiti, Luh Gde Sri, and Tanda Panjaitan. “Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy.” Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine Online.open-access (2013): e70081943. Web. 16 Mar. 2013.
Astiti, Luh Gde Sri, and Tanda Panjaitan. “Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy.” Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine Online, no. open-access (March 15, 2013): e70081943. http://www.open-science-repository.com/serum-progesterone-concentration-in-bali-cow-during-pregnancy.html.
Astiti, L.G.S. & Panjaitan, T., 2013. Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy. Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine, Online(open-access), p.e70081943. Available at: http://www.open-science-repository.com/serum-progesterone-concentration-in-bali-cow-during-pregnancy.html.
1. L. G. S. Astiti, T. Panjaitan, Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy, Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine Online, e70081943 (2013).
1. Astiti, L. G. S. & Panjaitan, T. Serum Progesterone Concentration in Bali Cow During Pregnancy. Open Science Repository Veterinary Medicine Online, e70081943 (2013).
Research registered in the DOI resolution system as: 10.7392/Veterinary.70081943.
Submit an open review for this paper
Main criteria reviewers should evaluate are: originality, sound methodology and data, following of universal ethical principles, scientific relevance and clear description of problems, hypotheses and results.
Names, affiliations of reviewers and personal contacts should be included at the end of the text.
Maximum text length is 10000 characters. Only serious, consistent and original reviews are accepted.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.