doi: **10.7392/openaccess.23050452**

Ifugao State University, Philippines

This study determined the level of achievement in problem solving among college freshmen in terms of their posttest achievement scores and the effects of mathematics bibliotherapy model and ability groupings on the achievement of college freshmen in problem solving. It was conducted at the Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry, Lamut, Ifugao from December 10, 2007 to January 31, 2008 using 102 college freshmen as the subjects of the study.

The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. To describe the profile of the respondents, frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviations were used while in the analyses of the significant relationships among variables, the Analysis of Covariance was utilized. The Scheffé Method was also used to compare the differences between each pair of ability groupings – the high ability, average ability and low ability groupings.

The 0.05 probability level (level of significance) was used as the critical point of reference.

The findings in the study were as follows:

1. The overall level of achievement of the college freshmen in Plane trigonometry in terms of their posttest scores is “average”.

2. There is a significant difference between the achievement of college freshmen exposed to mathematics bibliotherapy model and the conventional teaching method with mental ability test equivalent grades as covariate.

3. There is a significant difference between the achievement of college freshmen exposed to mathematics bibliotherapy model and the conventional teaching method with reading comprehension ability test scores as covariate.

4. There is a significant difference between the achievement of college freshmen exposed to mathematics bibliotherapy model and the conventional teaching method with final grades in College Algebra as covariate.

5. There is a significant difference between the achievement of college freshmen exposed to math bibliotherapy model and the conventional teaching method with final grades in Study and Thinking Skills as covariate.

6. There is no significant interaction between the methods of teaching problem solving and the ability groupings on the students’ achievement.

7. There is no significant interaction between the methods of teaching problem solving and the ability groupings on the students’ achievement with mental ability test equivalent grades as covariate.

8. There is no significant interaction between the methods of teaching problem solving and the ability groupings on the students’ achievement with reading comprehension ability test scores as covariate.

9. There is no significant interaction between the methods of teaching problem solving and the ability groupings on the students’ achievement with final grades in College Algebra as covariate.

10. There is no significant interaction between the methods of teaching problem solving and the ability groupings on the students’ achievement with final grades in Study and Thinking Skills as covariate.

11. The mean difference between the low ability group and the average ability group is significant; between the low ability group and the high ability group is significant and between the average ability group and the high ability group is also significant.

The following conclusions were formulated based on the findings in this study:

1. The students exposed to the mathematics bibliotherapy model tend to achieve better than the students exposed to the conventional method of teaching problem solving.

2. The mathematics bibliotherapy model is better than the conventional method.

3. The mathematics bibliotherapy model is applicable to all ability groupings – the low ability group, average ability group and high ability group.

Based from the conclusions, the researcher offers the following recommendations:

1. Administrators and mathematics teachers should advocate the use of mathematics bibliotherapy model in order to enhance teaching in problem solving and improve students’ achievement in mathematics.

2. It is recommended that curriculum designers include problem solving as a part of the mathematics curricula for further improvement of mathematics education.

3. Other researchers are encouraged to conduct similar studies in other fields of Mathematics and other related areas of learning in other year levels in a longer duration of experimentation.

4. A Conduct of Math Clinic is recommended using the mathematics bibliotherapy model as a way of enhancing problem solving.

**Keywords**: mathematics, bibliotherapy model, ability groupings.

Citation: Aquino, D. M. (2013). Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving. *Open Science Repository Mathematics*, Online(open-access), e23050452. doi:10.7392/openaccess.23050452

Received: November 5, 2013

Published: November 12, 2013

Copyright: © 2013 Aquino, D. M. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Contact: research@open-science-repository.com

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**APA**

Aquino, D. M. (2013). Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving. *Open Science Repository Mathematics*, Online(open-access), e23050452. doi:10.7392/openaccess.23050452

**MLA**

Aquino, Diosdado M. “Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving.” *Open Science Repository Mathematics* Online.open-access (2013): e23050452.

**Chicago**

Aquino, Diosdado M. “Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving.” *Open Science Repository Mathematics *Online, no. open-access (November 12, 2013): e23050452. doi:10.7392/openaccess.23050452.

**Harvard**

Aquino, D.M., 2013. Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving. *Open Science Repository Mathematics*, Online(open-access), p.e23050452.

**Science**

1. D. M. Aquino, Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving, *Open Sci. Repos. Math.* **Online**, e23050452 (2013).

**Nature**

1. Aquino, D. M. Effects of Mathematics Bibliotherapy Model and Ability Groupings on the Achievements of College Freshmen in Problem Solving. *Open Sci. Repos. Math*. **Online**, e23050452 (2013).

Research registered in the DOI resolution system as:** ****10.7392/openaccess.23050452**.

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