Open Science Repository Chemistry

doi: 10.7392/openaccess.23050483


Occurrence of heavy and trace metals in traditionally fermented milk consumed in Narok and Kericho regions of South Rift in Kenya


Wangila Tsikhungu Phanice [1], Tsimbiri Pamella [2], Cecilia Sang [1] 

[1] University of Kabianga, [2] Egerton University, Kenya


Abstract

The Kalenjins living in Kericho and the Maasai in the Narok region of Kenya, process and use fermented milk as food after addition of food preservatives. In the present study lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and chromium (Cr) in fermented cow milk was determined. Samples were collected from selected areas of Kericho and Narok counties of south Rift in Kenya. An atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) was used for analysis. The amounts of trace metals, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also similarly quantified. Fermented milk from Narok had higher amounts of copper (0.013±0.03ppm) compared to the other metals Cd (0.012±0.03ppm), Pb (0.206±0.03ppm), Zn (0.222±0.03ppm) and Hg (0.002±0.03ppm). On the other hand, milk samples from Kericho also had a higher copper content (0.127±0.03ppm) than the other metals, Cd (0.004±0.03ppm), Pb (0.100±0.03ppm), and Zn (0.085±0.03ppm). Chromium was not detected in milk samples fro the two regions while mercury was undetected only in milk samples from Narok. Lead levels were higher (0.206±0.03ppm) in milk samples from Narok than in those from with Kericho County with 0.100±0.03ppm. In addition, mercury residues were present in the Narok samples averaging 0.002ppm. Nevertheless, no significant statistical differences were found between the quantities of heavy and trace elements between Kericho and Narok cow milk in reference to the permissible limits by Codex/ WHO. The presence of these heavy and trace metals in fermented milk samples calls for further monitoring in other areas where milk is thus processed and consumed. In addition, some caution in the use of such milk is necessary.

Keywords: fermented milk, copper, lead, chromium, cadmium.



Citation: Phanice, W. T., Pamella, T., & Sang, C. (2014). Occurrence of heavy and trace metals in traditionally fermented milk consumed in Narok and Kericho regions of South Rift in Kenya. Open Science Repository Chemistry, Online(open-access), e23050483. doi:10.7392/openaccess.23050483

Received: January 7, 2014

Published: January 14, 2014

Copyright: © 2014 Phanice, W. T., Pamella, T., & Sang, C. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Contact: research@open-science-repository.com



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APA

Phanice, W. T., Pamella, T., & Sang, C. (2014). Occurrence of heavy and trace metals in traditionally fermented milk consumed in Narok and Kericho regions of South Rift in Kenya. Open Science Repository Chemistry, Online(open-access), e23050483. doi:10.7392/openaccess.23050483

MLA

Phanice, Wangila Tsikhungu, Tsimbiri Pamella, and Cecilia Sang. “Occurrence of Heavy and Trace Metals in Traditionally Fermented Milk Consumed in Narok and Kericho Regions of South Rift in Kenya.” Open Science Repository Chemistry Online.open-access (2014): e23050483..

Chicago

Phanice, Wangila Tsikhungu, Tsimbiri Pamella, and Cecilia Sang. “Occurrence of Heavy and Trace Metals in Traditionally Fermented Milk Consumed in Narok and Kericho Regions of South Rift in Kenya.” Open Science Repository Chemistry Online, no. open-access (January 14, 2014): e23050483. doi:10.7392/openaccess.23050483.

Harvard

Phanice, W.T., Pamella, T. & Sang, C., 2014. Occurrence of heavy and trace metals in traditionally fermented milk consumed in Narok and Kericho regions of South Rift in Kenya. Open Science Repository Chemistry, Online(open-access), p.e23050483. Available at: http://www.open-science-repository.com/chemistry-23050483.html

Science

1. W. T. Phanice, T. Pamella, C. Sang, Occurrence of heavy and trace metals in traditionally fermented milk consumed in Narok and Kericho regions of South Rift in Kenya, Open Sci. Repos. Chem. Online, e23050483 (2014).

Nature

1. Phanice, W. T., Pamella, T. & Sang, C. Occurrence of heavy and trace metals in traditionally fermented milk consumed in Narok and Kericho regions of South Rift in Kenya. Open Sci. Repos. Chem. Online, e23050483 (2014).


doi

Research registered in the DOI resolution system as: 10.7392/openaccess.23050483.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.